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Determination of defect structures in kaolin minerals by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)

Toshihiro Kogure and Atsuyuki Inoue
Determination of defect structures in kaolin minerals by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)
American Mineralogist (January 2005) 90 (1): 85-89

Abstract

Near-atomic resolution TEM imaging has been successfully applied to determine the stacking defect structures in kaolin minerals, especially kaolinite. The specimen studied is from the middle stage of the depth-related kaolinite-to-dickite transformation in a sandstone reservoir. Several high-quality images were recorded on films in which the tetrahedral and octahedral positions in the kaolinite unit layers are clearly resolved, despite the obstacle of electron radiation damage. Electron diffraction and high-resolution imaging of dickite showed that few stacking defects exist in this polytype. On the other hand, kaolinite crystals contain a high density of stacking defects. These defects or stacking disorders are formed by a mixture of two kinds of lateral interlayer shifts, t (sub 1) (approximately -a/3) and t (sub 2) (-a/3 + b/3), between adjacent layers. Disorder due to the coexistence of B and C layers (dickite-like stacking sequence) was never observed. These results provide not only an unambiguous settlement for the long-standing controversy of the defect structures in kaolinite, but also a new clue to understanding the kaolinite-to-dickite transformation mechanism.


ISSN: 0003-004X
EISSN: 1945-3027
Coden: AMMIAY
Serial Title: American Mineralogist
Serial Volume: 90
Serial Issue: 1
Title: Determination of defect structures in kaolin minerals by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)
Affiliation: University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Tokyo, Japan
Pages: 85-89
Published: 200501
Text Language: English
Publisher: Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC, United States
References: 19
Accession Number: 2005-023528
Categories: Mineralogy of silicates
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus.
Secondary Affiliation: Chiba University, JPN, Japan
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute.
Update Code: 200512
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