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Controls on the evolution of carbonate mud mounds in the Lower Cretaceous Cupido Formation, northeastern Mexico

Gustavo Murillo-Muneton and Steven L. Dorobek
Controls on the evolution of carbonate mud mounds in the Lower Cretaceous Cupido Formation, northeastern Mexico
Journal of Sedimentary Research (November 2003) 73 (6): 869-886

Abstract

The Lower Cretaceous Cupido Formation in northeastern Mexico represents part of an extensive post-rift carbonate platform system that stretched across much of the Gulf of Mexico passive margin. Numerous sponge-microbial mud mounds are found within the lower part of the Cupido Formation; four mound types were identified at Bustamante Canyon and other localities in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Type 1 siliceous sponge-microbial mounds contain boundstone core facies, are the oldest mounds, and are associated with adjacent deep-ramp to basinal lime mudstone facies. Type 2 sponge-microbial mounds also have boundstone core facies, are associated with outer-ramp wackestone-packstone facies, and overlie strata that contain Type 1 mounds. Type 3 sponge-microbial-coral mounds contain only 40-50% boundstone core facies and overlie or are locally interstratified with Type 2 mound-bearing strata, although Type 3 mounds are associated with outer-ramp packstone facies. Type 4 calcisponge-microbial-coral biodetrital (dominantly skeletal packstone) mounds are the youngest mounds and are associated with outer-ramp packstone and ramp-crest rudist packstone facies. Both the length and height (i.e., synoptic relief) of individual Types 1, 2, and 3 mounds range from a few meters to tens of meters. Only Type 4 mounds reach several hundred meters in length and are up to 90 m thick, although synoptic relief on Type 4 mounds was minor. Systematic changes in the biota, morphologies, dimensions, abundance, stratigraphic distribution, and facies associations of the lower Cupido mounds were largely controlled by the initial ramp-like de-positional profile of the lower Cupido platform and the long-term ("second-order") accommodation trends that affected ramp evolution during Early Cretaceous time. The ramp-like profile was not conducive to transport of large volumes of allochthonous sediment from updip source areas to mound locations on the outer ramp. This allowed slowly accumulating Types 1, 2, and 3 mounds to build synoptic relief because adjacent outer-ramp facies accumulated at even slower rates. In contrast, Type 4 mound cores contain abundant coarse-grained skeletal sediment and also developed the least synoptic relief of all lower Cupido mounds because of higher accumulation rates associated with adjacent grain-rich ramp-crest lithofacies. We suggest that these systematic changes in mound attributes largely reflect long-term (second-order) accommodation loss and regional progradation of the lower Cupido ramp during Early Cretaceous time. Accordingly, the upward transition from Type 1 to Types 2 and 3 mounds, and ultimately to Type 4 buildups, can be explained by the progressive shallowing of outer-ramp environments as more updip facies tracts prograded eastward from late Hauterivian to early Aptian time. There are few stratigraphic successions in the rock record that provide better evidence for the links between large-scale stratigraphic relationships and mound evolution along low-gradient carbonate ramps.


ISSN: 1527-1404
EISSN: 1938-3681
Serial Title: Journal of Sedimentary Research
Serial Volume: 73
Serial Issue: 6
Title: Controls on the evolution of carbonate mud mounds in the Lower Cretaceous Cupido Formation, northeastern Mexico
Affiliation: Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion Ejecutiva de Exploracion y Produccion, Mexico City, Mexico
Pages: 869-886
Published: 200311
Text Language: English
Publisher: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, OK, United States
References: 52
Accession Number: 2004-014613
Categories: Sedimentary petrology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. sects., 1 table, sketch maps
N26°00'00" - N28°00'00", W102°00'00" - W100°00'00"
Secondary Affiliation: Texas A&M University, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2018, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, OK, United States
Update Code: 200405
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