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Paleotopographic reconstructions of the eastern outlets of glacial Lake Agassiz

David W. Leverington and James T. Teller
Paleotopographic reconstructions of the eastern outlets of glacial Lake Agassiz
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences = Revue Canadienne des Sciences de la Terre (September 2003) 40 (9): 1259-1278

Abstract

Paleotopographic reconstructions of the eastern outlets of glacial Lake Agassiz provide a foundation for understanding the complex manner in which terrain morphology controlled the routing of overflow through the eastern outlets during the lake's Nipigon Phase (ca. 9400-8000 (super 14) C years BP) and for understanding the causes of outlet-driven declines in lake level during that period. Although flow paths across the divide between the Agassiz and Nipigon basins were numerous, eastward releases from Lake Agassiz to glacial Lake Kelvin (modern Lake Nipigon) were channeled downslope into a relatively small number of major channels that included the valleys of modern Kopka River, Ottertooth Creek, Vale Creek, Whitesand River, Pikitigushi River, and Little Jackfish River. From Lake Kelvin, these waters overflowed into the Superior basin. The numerous lowerings in lake level between stages of the Nipigon Phase, controlled by topography and the position of the retreating southern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, had magnitudes of between 8 and 58 m, although some of these drawdowns may have occurred as multiple individual events that could have been as small as several metres. The total volumes of water released in association with these drops were as great as 8100 km (super 3) , and for all Nipigon stages were probably between about 140 and 250 km (super 3) per metre of lowering. The topographic reconstructions demonstrate that Lake Agassiz occupied the area of glacial Lake Nakina (located northeast of modern Lake Nipigon) by the The Pas stage (ca. 8000 (super 14) C years BP) and that Lake Agassiz drainage through the Nipigon basin to the Great Lakes ended before the succeeding Gimli stage.


ISSN: 0008-4077
EISSN: 1480-3313
Coden: CJESAP
Serial Title: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences = Revue Canadienne des Sciences de la Terre
Serial Volume: 40
Serial Issue: 9
Title: Paleotopographic reconstructions of the eastern outlets of glacial Lake Agassiz
Affiliation: Smithsonian Institution, Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, DC, United States
Pages: 1259-1278
Published: 200309
Text Language: English
Summary Language: French
Publisher: National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
References: 54
Accession Number: 2004-009825
Categories: Quaternary geology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch maps
N49°30'00" - N51°15'00", W90°30'00" - W88°00'00"
Secondary Affiliation: University of Manitoba, CAN, Canada
Country of Publication: Canada
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2018, American Geosciences Institute.
Update Code: 200403
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