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Basaltic island sand provenance

Kathleen M. Marsaglia
Basaltic island sand provenance (in Processes controlling the composition of clastic sediments, Mark J. Johnsson (editor) and Abhijit Basu (editor))
Special Paper - Geological Society of America (1993) 284: 41-66


The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are predominantly composed of basaltic flows and pyroclastic deposits that are exposed in arid to humid climates on progressively older islands. The major components of Hawaiian beach sands are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. A small to moderate percentage of volcanic lithic fragments are altered to iron oxides and/or clay minerals. The relative proportions of bioclastic, unaltered, and altered volcanic grains in these samples are highly variable, but are generally a function of island evolution, reflecting the degree of reef development and the intensity and duration of weathering and erosion. Hawaiian volcanic lithic fractions consist of brown and black glassy volcanic fragments exhibiting vitric, microlitic, and lathwork textures and "other" holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments. The proportions of these volcanic lithic types do not appear to vary systematically for sands with tholeiitic versus alkalic basalt provenance. Although these basaltic sands compositionally overlap sands from undissected magmatic arcs on traditional ternary plots (e.g., QFL, QmPK, LmLvLs), they can be compositionally and texturally distinguished from sands derived from island arc volcanic sources. In general, Hawaiian basaltic sands contain more olivine/pyroxene grains, fragments of tachylitic black glass, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and volcanic grains exhibiting lathwork textures.

ISSN: 0072-1077
EISSN: 2331-219X
Serial Title: Special Paper - Geological Society of America
Serial Volume: 284
Title: Basaltic island sand provenance
Title: Processes controlling the composition of clastic sediments
Author(s): Marsaglia, Kathleen M.
Author(s): Johnsson, Mark J.editor
Author(s): Basu, Abhijiteditor
Affiliation: University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Geological Sciences, El Paso, TX, United States
Affiliation: U. S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, United States
Pages: 41-66
Published: 1993
Text Language: English
Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
References: 46
Accession Number: 1994-013889
Categories: Sedimentary petrology
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustration Description: illus. incl. 2 plates, 11 tables, sketch map
N19°00'00" - N23°00'00", W160°00'00" - W155°00'00"
Secondary Affiliation: Indiana University, USA, United States
Country of Publication: United States
Secondary Affiliation: GeoRef, Copyright 2017, American Geosciences Institute.
Update Code: 199406
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