A thermodynamic model for aqueous solutions of liquid-like density
A thermodynamic model for aqueous solutions of liquid-like density (in Thermodynamic modeling of geological materials; minerals, fluids and melts, I. S. E. Carmichael (editor) and H. P. Eugster (editor))
Reviews in Mineralogy (1987) 17: 97-142
There are many geologically important natural systems involving multicomponent aqueous solutions; other similar systems are important in steam power generation, chemical processing and other industrial operations. Thus it is important to have an accurate and convenient model for the prediction of the thermodynamic properties of such aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions are also of theoretical interest. A complete calculation involves several steps: 1) the standard-state chemical potential or molar Gibbs' energy of formation of each substance involved; 2) the excess Gibbs' energy for the solution, which yields activity coefficients of all solute species and the osmotic coefficient; 3) for high-T applications, the changes of standard state chemical potential values from 25 degrees C to the T of interest. Applications include solubilities of solids, complex-ion equilibria, vapour-phase equilibria and thermal properties.