One-dimensional earth models consisting of uniform horizontal layers are useful both as actual representations of earth structures and as host models for more complex structures. However, there are often inherent difficulties in establishing layer thicknesses and resistivities from one type of measurement alone. For example, the dc resistivity method is sensitive to both conductive and resistive layers, but as these layers become thin, nonuniqueness becomes a severe problem. Electromagnetic (EM) methods are good for establishing the parameters of conductive layers, but they are quite insensitive to resistive layers.The use of both coincident loop transient EM (TEM) and Schlumberger methods, together with a joint inverse computer program, can vastly improve interpretation of layered-earth parameters. The final model is less dependent upon starting guesses, error bounds are much improved, and nonuniqueness is much less of a problem. These advantages are illustrated by interpretation of real field data as well as by a theoretical study of four different types of earth models.

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