We introduce a 3D generalized spherical multifocusing (GSMF) algorithm to generate a high-resolution 3D stacked volume that is equivalent to a synthesized 3D zero-offset wavefield for crooked-line/3D seismic data. The proposed algorithm can be applied to arbitrary recording geometry from areas with irregular topography, a complex near the surface, and complex subsurface. The 3D GSMF method simultaneously corrects for elevation statics, nonhyperbolic moveout associated with reflections beneath complex overburden structures, and azimuth-dependent dip-moveout effects. In addition, the formulation is dually generalized for the optical domain and the effective medium. The optical domain and effective medium parameterizations account for heterogeneity either by shifting the reference time to project the problem into the optical image space or by adjusting the velocity of an effective overburden, respectively. We test the performance of our method using 3D synthetic data with 3D and crooked-line surveys. The numerical tests have shown that the accuracy of the new approximation is significant for gently to highly curved interfaces beneath low to relatively high heterogeneous overburden with rugged topography, even at large offsets and midpoint separations. In addition, we rigorously evaluate the method using 3D real seismic data acquired over a complex thrust-belt area with rugged terrain. Compared with conventional 3D stacking, the new formulation yields a high resolution and accurate seismic stacked volume from land seismic data collected with arbitrary 3D geometries.

You do not have access to this content, please speak to your institutional administrator if you feel you should have access.