The lack of low-frequency signals in seismic data makes the full-waveform inversion (FWI) procedure easily fall into local minima leading to unreliable results. To reconstruct the missing low-frequency signals more accurately and effectively, we have developed a data-driven low-frequency recovery method based on deep learning from high-frequency signals. In our method, we develop the idea of using a basic data patch of seismic data to build a local data-driven mapping in low-frequency recovery. Energy balancing and data patches are used to prepare high- and low-frequency data for training a convolutional neural network (CNN) to establish the relationship between the high- and low-frequency data pairs. The trained CNN then can be used to predict low-frequency data from high-frequency data. Our CNN was trained on the Marmousi model and tested on the overthrust model, as well as field data. The synthetic experimental results reveal that the predicted low-frequency data match the true low-frequency data very well in the time and frequency domains, and the field results show the successfully extended low-frequency spectra. Furthermore, two FWI tests using the predicted data demonstrate that our approach can reliably recover the low-frequency data.

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