Quality factor (Q) and reflectivity are two important subsurface properties in seismic data processing and interpretation. They can be calculated simultaneously from a seismic trace corresponding to an anelastic layered model by a simultaneous inversion method based on the nonstationary convolutional model. However, the conventional simultaneous inversion method calculates the optimum Q and reflectivity based on the minimum of the reflectivity sparsity by sweeping each Q value within a predefined range. As a result, the accuracy and computational efficiency of the conventional method depend heavily on the predefined Q value set. To improve the performance of the conventional simultaneous inversion method, we have developed a dictionary learning-based simultaneous inversion of Q and reflectivity. The parametric dictionary learning method is used to update the initial predefined Q value set automatically. The optimum Q and reflectivity are calculated from the updated Q value set based on minimizing not only the sparsity of the reflectivity but also the data residual. Synthetic data and two field data sets are used to test the effectiveness of our method. The results demonstrate that our method can effectively improve the accuracy of these two parameters compared to the conventional simultaneous inversion method. In addition, the dictionary learning method can improve computational efficiency up to approximately seven times when compared to the conventional method with a large predefined dictionary.