ABSTRACT

The competing effect between the fundamental bubble and its source-ghost response results in a strong attenuation of the lowest frequencies (below 7 Hz). This loss cannot be compensated easily by adjusting the source depth. Consequently, the low-frequency content in marine seismic data is not optimal, degrading the performance of low-frequency dependent processing approaches, such as full-waveform inversion. To overcome this, we have developed an additional source to counteract the ghost from the main source. In this situation, the fundamental bubble is characterized by the depth of the main source, whereas the ghost response is characterized by the summed depth of the main and additional sources. This source setup mitigates the competing effect and reduces the suppression of ultralow frequencies. Compared with a conventional horizontal source, our source design will reduce the mid- to high-frequency output, which may be beneficial in situations in which environmental constraints limit the maximum allowed output of a marine source.

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