Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a large-scale nonlinear ill-posed problem for which computationally expensive Newton-type methods can become trapped in undesirable local minima, particularly when the initial model lacks a low-wavenumber component and the recorded data lack low-frequency content. A modification to the Gauss-Newton (GN) method is developed to address these issues. The standard GN system for multisource multireceiver FWI is reformulated into an equivalent matrix equation form, with the solution becoming a diagonal matrix rather than a vector as in the standard system. The search direction is transformed from a vector to a matrix by relaxing the diagonality constraint, effectively adding a degree of freedom to the subsurface offset axis. The relaxed system can be explicitly solved with only the inversion of two small matrices that deblur the data residual matrix along the source and receiver dimensions, which simplifies the inversion of the Hessian matrix. When used to solve the extended-source FWI objective function, the extended GN (EGN) method integrates the benefits of model and source extension. The EGN method effectively combines the computational effectiveness of the reduced FWI method with the robustness characteristics of extended formulations and offers a promising solution for addressing the challenges of FWI. It bridges the gap between these extended formulations and the reduced FWI method, enhancing inversion robustness while maintaining computational efficiency. The robustness and stability of the EGN algorithm for waveform inversion are demonstrated numerically.

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