One advantage of one-way wave equation-based migration is its low computational cost. However, due to the limited wavefield propagation angle, it is difficult to use one-way wave equation-based migration for high-precision imaging of structures with large inclinations due to issues such as inaccurate amplitudes and migration image artifacts. In addition, when the model has large horizontal velocity differences, it is difficult for the one-way wave propagator to calculate an accurate wavefield phase. Reverse time migration (RTM) based on the two-way wave propagator has a high resolution and avoids the issues associated with one-way wave propagators; however, it has a high computational cost in practical applications. We develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) application mode that improves one migration method by learning from another one and design a CNN with a structure similar to U-net that combines the advantages of both migration methods. The CNN label is the RTM result, and the corresponding input is the result of one-way wave migration with a generalized screen propagator (GSP). The trained CNN model improves the amplitude in the one-way wave migration image and removes the errors caused by large lateral velocity perturbations. Moreover, by maintaining the high migration calculation efficiency, our CNN model allows for a high resolution, few artifacts, and accurate images of steep structures in the one-way wave migration result. With our method, the accuracy of the one-way wave migration result is close to that of the RTM result. The use of GSP-based migration in our CNN model rather than conventional RTM to generate prospecting images can considerably reduce the calculation costs.

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