The migration of prismatic reflections can be used to delineate steeply dipping structures, which is crucial for oil and gas exploration and production. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (ELSRTM), which considers the effects of elastic wave propagation, can be used to obtain reasonable subsurface reflectivity estimations and interpret multicomponent seismic data. In most cases, we can only obtain a smooth migration model. Thus, conventional ELSRTM, which is based on the first-order Born approximation, considers only primary reflections and cannot resolve steeply dipping structures. To address this issue, we develop an ELSRTM framework, called Pris-ELSRTM, which can jointly image primary and prismatic reflections in multicomponent seismic data. When Pris-ELSRTM is directly applied to multicomponent records, near-vertical structures can be resolved. However, the application of imaging conditions established for prismatic reflections to primary reflections destabilizes the process and leads to severe contamination of the results. Therefore, we further improve the Pris-ELSRTM framework by separating prismatic reflections from recorded multicomponent data. By removing artificial imaging conditions from the normal equation, primary and prismatic reflections can be imaged based on unique imaging conditions. The results of synthetic tests and field data applications demonstrate that the improved Pris-ELSRTM framework produces high-quality images of steeply dipping P- and S-wave velocity structures. However, it is difficult to delineate steep density structures because of the insensitivity of the density to prismatic reflections.

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