Instrumenting wells with distributed acoustic sensors (DASs) and illuminating them with passive or active seismic sources allows precise tracking of temporal variations of direct-wave traveltimes and amplitudes, which can be used to monitor variations in formation stiffness and density. This approach has been tested by tracking direct-wave amplitudes and traveltimes as part of a carbon capture and storage project where a 15 kt supercritical CO2 injection has been monitored with continuous offset vertical seismic profiling using nine permanently mounted surface orbital vibrators acting as seismic sources and several wells instrumented with DAS cables cemented behind the casing. The results indicate a significant (from 15% to 30%) increase of strain amplitudes within the CO2 injection interval, and traveltime shifts of 0.3–0.4 ms below this interval, consistent with full-wave 1.5D numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. The results give independent estimates of the CO2 plume thickness and the associated P-wave velocity reduction.

You do not have access to this content, please speak to your institutional administrator if you feel you should have access.