Angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) that can be used for migration velocity analysis and amplitude-versus-angle analysis are important for seismic exploration. However, because of the limited acquisition geometry and seismic frequency band, ADCIGs extracted by reverse time migration (RTM) suffer from illumination gaps, migration artifacts, and low resolution. We have developed a reflection angle-domain pseudoextended plane-wave least-squares RTM method for obtaining high-quality ADCIGs. We build the mapping relations between the ADCIGs and the plane-wave sections using an angle-domain pseudoextended Born modeling operator and an adjoint operator, based on which we formulate the extraction of ADCIGs as an inverse problem. The inverse problem is iteratively solved by a preconditioned stochastic conjugate-gradient method, allowing for reduction in computational cost by migrating only a subset instead of the whole data set and improving the image quality thanks to preconditioners. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data verify that our method can compensate for illumination gaps, suppress migration artifacts, and improve resolution of the ADCIGs and the stacked images. Therefore, compared to RTM, our method provides a more reliable input for migration velocity analysis and amplitude-versus-angle analysis. Moreover, it also provides much better stacked images for seismic interpretation.

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