An important imaging challenge is creating reliable seismic images without internal multiple crosstalk, especially in cases with strong overburden reflectivity. Several data-driven methods have been proposed to attenuate the internal multiple crosstalk, for which fully sampled data in the source and receiver side are usually required. To overcome this acquisition constraint, model-driven full-wavefield migration (FWM) can automatically include internal multiples and only needs dense sampling in either the source or receiver side. In addition, FWM can correct for transmission effects at the reflecting interfaces. Although FWM has been shown to work effectively in compensating for transmission effects and suppressing internal multiple crosstalk compared to conventional least-squares primary wavefield migration (PWM), it tends to generate relatively weaker internal multiples during modeling. Therefore, some leaked internal multiple crosstalk can still be observed in the FWM image, which tends to blend in the background and can be misinterpreted as real geology. Thus, we adopted a novel framework using local primary-and-multiple orthogonalization (LPMO) on the FWM image as a postprocessing step for leaked internal multiple crosstalk estimation and attenuation. Due to their opposite correlation with the FWM image, a positive-only LPMO weight can be used to estimate the leaked internal multiple crosstalk, whereas a negative-only LPMO weight indicates the transmission effects that need to be retained. Application to North Sea field data validates the performance of the proposed framework for removing the weak but misleading leaked internal multiple crosstalk in the FWM image. Therefore, with this new framework, FWM can provide a reliable solution to the long-standing issue of imaging primaries and internal multiples automatically, with proper primary restoration.

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