In urban subsurface exploration, seismic surveys are mostly conducted along roads where seismic vibrators can be extensively used to generate strong seismic energy due to economic and environmental constraints. Generally, Rayleigh waves also are excited by the compressional wave profiling process. Shear-wave (S-wave) velocities can be inferred using Rayleigh waves to complement near-surface characterization. Most vibrators cannot excite seismic energy at lower frequencies (<5 Hz) to map greater depths during surface-wave analysis in areas with low S-wave velocities, but low-frequency surface waves (>1  Hz) can be extracted from traffic-induced noise, which can be easily obtained at marginal additional cost. We have implemented synthetic tests to evaluate the velocity deviation caused by offline sources, finding a reasonably small relative bias of surface-wave dispersion curves due to vehicle sources on roads. Using a 2D reflection survey and traffic-induced noise from the central North China Plain, we apply seismic interferometry to a series of 10.0 s segments of passive data. Then, each segment is selectively stacked on the acausal-to-causal ratio of the mean signal-to-noise ratio to generate virtual shot gathers with better dispersion energy images. We next use the dispersion curves derived by combining controlled source surveying with vehicle noise to retrieve the shallow S-wave velocity structure. A maximum exploration depth of 90 m is achieved, and the inverted S-wave profile and interval S-wave velocity model obtained from reflection processing appear consistent. The data set demonstrates that using surface waves derived from seismic reflection surveying and traffic-induced noise provides an efficient supplementary technique for delineating shallow structures in areas featuring thick Quaternary overburden. Additionally, the field test indicates that traffic noise can be created using vehicles or vibrators to capture surface waves within a reliable frequency band of 2–25 Hz if no vehicles are moving along the survey line.

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