Various geophysical data types have advantages for exploring the subsurface, and more reliable exploration can be realized through integration of such data. However, the imaging of physical properties based on deep learning (DL) techniques, which has received considerable attention because of its enormous potential, has generally been performed using only a single type of data. We have developed a cooperative inversion method based on supervised DL for salt delineation. Controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data, which can effectively distinguish a salt body with high electrical resistivity from the surrounding medium, are used as data for cooperative inversion, with high-resolution information derived from seismic data used as the constraint. This approach can entrain seismic information into a fully convolutional network designed to invert CSEM data to reconstruct the resistivity distribution. The inversion network is trained using large synthetic data sets, including the seismic information derived from seismic data as well as CSEM data and resistivity models. A cooperative strategy for reasonable entrainment of seismic information into the inversion network is established based on analysis of the network and kernels of the convolutional layers. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments on test data generated for resistivity models for complex salt structures. The trained cooperative inversion network shows improved salt delineation results compared to the independent inversion network, irrespective of noise levels added to the test data, due to restriction of the resistivity model to fit seismic information. Moreover, training with noise-added data decreased the effects of noise on prediction results, similar to the case of adversarial training. We develop the possibility of combining geophysical data with a constraint using DL-based techniques.

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