Severe water inrush currently halts the excavation of the Qinling Water Transportation Tunnel and has even stopped tunneling. Based on the geologic conditions of the construction area, the source of water inrush is abundant groundwater in fractured granite. To accurately predict water inrush, we must know the location, geometry, and boundary information of water-abundant zones before excavation. We have developed a field study of integrated seismic and transient electromagnetic (TEM) applications to map the water-abundant zones ahead of the tunnel face. Before the in-tunnel survey, numerical experiments based on excavation and drilling records verified the feasibility of our scheme. To reveal the fractured zones that may be filled with groundwater, an equitraveltime plane algorithm was used in the seismic data processing. Then, the TEM apparent resistivity was calculated to investigate the water-bearing condition of the fractured zones. To detect the water-abundant zone boundaries, we conducted migration imaging of the TEM pseudowavefield that was extracted from the measured TEM signals. A correlation stacking process to extract the TEM pseudowavefield was used to mitigate the ill-posed effect in the inverse wavefield transformation and obtain boundary information of the water-abundant zones. As expected, the results revealed the depth and geometry of the front and rear boundaries of two water-abundant zones 30 m ahead of the tunnel face, which is consistent with drilling and excavation records after the survey. The results of our case study indicate that the integration of seismic imaging, apparent resistivity imaging, and TEM pseudowavefield migration is an efficient and cost-effective method to provide the location, geometry, and boundary information of water-abundant zones.

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