ABSTRACT

The lack of low-frequency information and a good initial model can seriously affect the success of full-waveform inversion (FWI), due to the inherent cycle skipping problem. Computational low-frequency extrapolation is in principle the most direct way to address this issue. By considering bandwidth extension as a regression problem in machine learning, we have adopted an architecture of convolutional neural network (CNN) to automatically extrapolate the missing low frequencies. The band-limited recordings are the inputs of the CNN, and, in our numerical experiments, a neural network trained from enough samples can predict a reasonable approximation to the seismograms in the unobserved low-frequency band, in phase and in amplitude. The numerical experiments considered are set up on simulated P-wave data. In extrapolated FWI (EFWI), the low-wavenumber components of the model are determined from the extrapolated low frequencies, before proceeding with a frequency sweep of the band-limited data. The introduced deep-learning method of low-frequency extrapolation shows adequate generalizability for the initialization step of EFWI. Numerical examples show that the neural network trained on several submodels of the Marmousi model is able to predict the low frequencies for the BP 2004 benchmark model. Additionally, the neural network can robustly process seismic data with uncertainties due to the existence of random noise, a poorly known source wavelet, and a different finite-difference scheme in the forward modeling operator. Finally, this approach is not subject to strong assumptions on signals or velocity models of other methods for bandwidth extension and seems to offer a tantalizing solution to the problem of properly initializing FWI.

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