ABSTRACT

Seismic forward modeling in tilted transverse isotropic (TTI) media is crucial for the application of reverse time migration and full-waveform inversion. Modeling based on conventional coupled pseudoacoustic wave equations not only generates SV-wave artifacts, but it also suffers from instabilities in which the anisotropy parameter ε<δ. To address these issues, we have started with the exact vertical transversely isotropic phase velocity formula and developed novel pure qP- and qSV-wave governing equations in TTI media by using the optimal quadratic approximation. For the convenience of using finite-difference (FD) method to solve the new pure qP- and qSV-wave wave equations, we decompose the equations into a combination of a time-space-domain wave equation that can be solved by the FD method and a Poisson equation that can be solved by the pseudospectral method. We find that the high-frequency errors caused by the pseudospectral method and the usual truncation errors in FD schemes may be responsible for the instability of the numerical simulations. To stabilize the computation, we design a 2D low-pass filtering operator to eliminate severe high-frequency numerical noise. Several numerical examples demonstrate that modeling using the new pure qP-wave equations does not have qSV-wave artifacts interference and is stable for ε<δ. Our results indicate that our method can achieve highly accurate and stable modeling results even in extremely complex TTI media.

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