Proppant mapping is critical for optimizing fracture treatment design and improving wells’ productivity. An electrode-based resistivity tool concept was developed earlier for proppant mapping in cased-hole wells. An array of insulating gaps is installed and cemented in place as a permanent part of the casing string. The electrical measurements are performed by imposing a voltage across each insulating gap, one at a time, before and after hydraulic fracture operations. The voltages across other insulating gaps near the transmitter gap are recorded. The method relies on direct excitation of the casing, which is expected to overcome the severe limitations of induction tools in cased-hole wells. A forward model based on a finite volume method has been developed to simulate the tool’s response to one or multiple fractures. To enable the implementation of such a practical system in multistage fractured horizontal wells, a fast and robust inversion approach is required. To that end, we have developed a divide-and-conquer approach based on a global optimization algorithm very fast simulated annealing (VFSA). Specifically, the original inverse problem is divided into subproblems and each subproblem can be solved separately using VFSA. The results indicate that our approach can invert the data and output widths and radii of multiple fractures without requiring a large number of forward simulations. The robustness of the inverse solver is also tested by adding Gaussian noise to the synthetic data. We tested example cases that demonstrate that when up to 5% noise is introduced, VFSA still provides very accurate inversion results with moderate uncertainties. Inversion results with some more realistic conditions, e.g., tilted fractures, complex fractures, and so on, are also presented.

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