ABSTRACT

Straightforward implementations of elastic reverse time migration (ERTM) often produce imaging artifacts associated with incorrectly imaged mode conversions, crosstalk, and back-scattered energies. To address these issues, we introduced three approaches: (1) vector-based normalized crosscorrelation imaging conditions (VBNICs), (2) directional separation of wavefields to remove low-wavenumber noise, and (3) postimaging filtering of the dip-angle gathers to eliminate the artifacts caused by nonphysical wave modes. These approaches are combined to create an effective ERTM workflow that can produce high-quality images. Numerical examples demonstrate that, first, VBNICs can produce correct polarities for PP/PS images and can compute migrated dip-angle gathers efficiently by using P/S decomposed Poynting vectors. Second, they achieve improved signal-to-noise and higher resolution when performing up/down decomposition before applying VBNICs, and left/right decomposition enhances steep dips imaging at the computational cost of adding the Hilbert transform to a spatial direction. Third, dip filtering using slope-consistency analysis attenuates the remaining artifacts effectively. An application of the SEG advanced modeling program (SEAM) model demonstrates that our ERTM workflow reduces noise and improves imaging ability for complex geologic areas.

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