We have developed a scheme that retrieves primary reflections in the two-way traveltime domain by filtering the data. The data have their own filter that removes internal multiple reflections, whereas the amplitudes of the retrieved primary reflections are compensated for two-way transmission losses. Application of the filter does not require any model information. It consists of convolutions and correlations of the data with itself. A truncation in the time domain is applied after each convolution or correlation. The retrieved data set can be used as the input to construct a better velocity model than the one that would be obtained by working directly with the original data and to construct an enhanced subsurface image. Two 2D numerical examples indicate the effectiveness of the method. We have studied bandwidth limitations by analyzing the effects of a thin layer. The presence of refracted and scattered waves is a known limitation of the method, and we studied it as well. Our analysis indicates that a thin layer is treated as a more complicated reflector, and internal multiple reflections related to the thin layer are properly removed. We found that the presence of refracted and scattered waves generates artifacts in the retrieved data.