In transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods, the full transmitting-current waveform, not just the abrupt turn-off, can have effects on the measured responses. A 3D finite-element time-domain forward-modeling solver was used to investigate these effects. This was motivated by an attempt to match, via forward-modeling, real data from the Albany graphite deposit in northern Ontario, Canada. Initial modeling results for homogeneous half-spaces illustrate the effects that a full waveform can have on TEM responses, especially the durations of the steady stage and turn-off time. For the Albany data set, a geophysical conductivity model was developed from a geologic model that itself had been constructed predominantly from drillhole information. The conductivities of the various geologic units in the model were first estimated based on typical conductivity values for the respective rock types, then adjusted to fit the measured TEM data as closely as possible. We found that the TEM responses differed significantly from the pure step-off response and that incorporating the effects of the full waveform (particularly the linear ramp turn-off) greatly improved the match between observed and computed responses, especially for the early measurement times. In addition, this Albany example illustrates the presence of sign changes in TEM data caused primarily by localized conductivity targets.

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