We have applied time domain 2D full-waveform inversion (FWI) to detect a known 10 m deep wood-framed tunnel at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The acquired seismic data consist of a series of 2D survey lines that are perpendicular to the long axis of the tunnel. With the use of an initial model estimated from surface wave methods, a void-detection-oriented FWI workflow was applied. A straightforward VP/VS quotient masking method was used to reduce the inversion artifacts and improve confidence in identifying anomalies that possess a high VP/VS ratio. Using near-surface FWI, VP and VS velocity profiles were obtained with void anomalies that are easily interpreted. The inverted velocity profiles depict the tunnel as a low-velocity anomaly at the correct location and depth. A comparison of the observed and simulated waveforms demonstrates the reliability of inverted models. Because the known tunnel has a uniform shape and for our purposes an infinite length, we apply 1D interpolation to the inverted VS profiles to generate a pseudo 3D (2.5D) volume. Based on this research, we conclude the following: (1) FWI is effective in near-surface tunnel detection when high resolution is necessary. (2) Surface-wave methods can provide accurate initial S-wave velocity VS models for near-surface 2D FWI.

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