Ray-based radius estimations of subsurface cylindrical objects such as rebars and pipes from ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) measurements are not accurate because of their approximations. We have developed a novel full-waveform inversion (FWI) approach that uses a full-waveform 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) forward-modeling program to estimate the radius including other object parameters. By using the full waveform of the common-offset GPR data, the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) approach is able to reliably extract the radius of the subsurface cylindrical objects. A combined optimization of radius, medium properties, and the effective source wavelet is necessary. Synthetic and experimental data inversion returns an accurate reconstruction of the cylinder properties, medium properties, and the effective source wavelet. Combining FWI of GPR data using SCE and a 3D FDTD forward model makes the approach easily adaptable for a wide range of other GPR FWI approaches.

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