ABSTRACT

We have investigated the influence of temperature and salinity upon the spectral induced polarization of 10 samples including rocks with their mineralization (galena, chalcopyrite) plus sand mixed with semiconductors such as magnetite grains, graphite, and pyrite cubes of two different sizes. Measurements are made in a temperature-controlled bath with a high-precision impedance meter and using NaCl solutions. We cover the temperature range 5°C−50°C and the frequency range 102  Hz to 45 kHz. For one large pyrite cube, we also investigated six salinities from 0.1 to 10  Sm1 (at 25°C, NaCl) and three salinities for graphite. The spectra are fitted with a Cole-Cole complex parametric conductivity model for which we provide a physical meaning to the four Cole-Cole parameters. As expected, the Cole-Cole exponent and the chargeability are independent of the temperature and salinity. The instantaneous and steady state (direct current [DC]) conductivities depend on the salinity and temperature. This temperature dependence can be fitted with an Arrhenius law (combining the Stokes-Einstein and Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equations) with an activation energy in the range of 15±1  kJMol1. This activation energy is the same as for the bulk pore-water conductivity demonstrating the control by the background electrolyte of these quantities, as expected. The instantaneous and DC conductivities depend on the salinity in a predictable way. The Cole-Cole relaxation time decreases with the temperature and decreases with the salinity. This behavior can be modeled with an Arrhenius law with an apparent activation energy of 7±3  kJmol1. A finite-element model is used further to analyze the mechanisms of polarization, and it can reproduce the temperature and salinity dependencies observed in the laboratory.

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