ABSTRACT

We deployed a newly developed 3C microelectromechanical system-based seismic land streamer over porous glacial sediments to delineate water table and bedrock in Southwestern Finland. The seismic source used was a 500 kg vertical impact drop hammer. We analyzed the SH-wave component and interpreted it together with previously analyzed P-wave component data. In addition to this, we examined the land streamer’s potential for multichannel analysis of surface waves and delineated the site’s stratigraphy with surface-wave-derived S-wave velocities and VP/VS ratios along the entire profile. These S-wave velocities and VP/VS ratios complement the interpretation conducted previously on P-wave stacked section. Peculiarly, although the seismic source used is of a vertical-type nature, the data inspection indicated clear bedrock reflection on the horizontal components, particularly the transverse component. This observation led us to scrutinize the horizontal component data through side-by-side inspection of the shot records of all the three components and particle motion analysis to confirm the S-wave nature of the reflection. Using the apparent moveout velocity of the reflection, as well as the known depth to bedrock based on drilling, we used finite-difference synthetic modeling to further verify its nature. Compared with the P-wave seismic section, bedrock is relatively well delineated on the transverse component S-wave section. Some structures connected to the kettle holes and other stratigraphic units imaged on the P-wave results were also notable on the S-wave section, and particularly on the surface-wave derived S-wave velocity model and VP/VS ratios. Our results indicate that P-, SV-, and SH-wave energy is generated simultaneously at the source location itself. This study demonstrates the potential of 3C seismic for characterization and delineation of the near-surface seismics.

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