ABSTRACT

The ideal approach for continuous reservoir monitoring allows generation of fast and accurate images to cope with the massive data sets acquired for such a task. Conventionally, rigorous depth-oriented velocity-estimation methods are performed to produce sufficiently accurate velocity models. Unlike the traditional way, the target-oriented imaging technology based on the common-focus point (CFP) theory can be an alternative for continuous reservoir monitoring. The solution is based on a robust data-driven iterative operator updating strategy without deriving a detailed velocity model. The same focusing operator is applied on successive 3D seismic data sets for the first time to generate efficient and accurate 4D target-oriented seismic stacked images from time-lapse field seismic data sets acquired in a CO2 injection project in Saudi Arabia. Using the focusing operator, target-oriented prestack angle domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) could be derived to perform amplitude-versus-angle analysis. To preserve the amplitude information in the ADCIGs, an amplitude-balancing factor is applied by embedding a synthetic data set using the real acquisition geometry to remove the geometry imprint artifact. Applying the CFP-based target-oriented imaging to time-lapse data sets revealed changes at the reservoir level in the poststack and prestack time-lapse signals, which is consistent with the CO2 injection history and rock physics.

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