Current temporal high-order finite-difference (FD) stencils are mainly designed for isotropic wave equations, which cannot be directly extended to pseudoacoustic wave equations (PWEs) in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain the time-space domain FD coefficients for anisotropic PWEs based on nonlinear dispersion relations in which anisotropy parameters are coupled with FD coefficients. Therefore, a second-order FD for temporal derivatives and a high-order FD for spatial derivatives are commonly used to discretize PWEs in TTI media. To improve the temporal and spatial modeling accuracy further, we have developed several effective FD schemes for modeling PWEs in TTI media. Through combining the k (wavenumber)-space operators with the conventional implicit FD stencils (i.e., regular-grid [RG], staggered-grid [SG], and rotated SG [RSG]), we establish novel dispersion relations and determine FD coefficients using least-squares (LS). Based on k-space operator compensation, we adopt the modified LS-based implicit RG-FD, implicit SG-FD, and implicit RSG-FD methods to respectively solve the second- and first-order PWEs in TTI media. Dispersion analyses indicate that the modified implicit FD schemes based on k-space operator compensation can greatly increase the numerical accuracy at large wavenumbers. Modeling examples in TTI media demonstrate that the proposed FD schemes can adopt a short FD operator to simultaneously achieve high temporal and spatial modeling accuracy, thus significantly improve the computational efficiency compared with the conventional methods.

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