Conventional migration uses the seismic data set recorded at a given depth as one initial condition from which to implement wavefield extrapolation in the depth domain. In using only one initial condition to solve the second-order acoustic wave equation, some approximations are used, resulting in the limitation of imaging angles and inaccurate imaging amplitudes. We use an over/under bilayer sensor seismic data acquisition system that can provide the two initial conditions required to make the second-order acoustic wave equation solvable in the depth domain, and we develop a two-way wave equation depth migration algorithm by adopting concepts from one-way propagators, called bilayer sensor migration. In this new migration method, two-way wave depth extrapolation can be achieved with two one-way propagators by combining the wavefields at two different depths. It makes it possible to integrate the advantages of one-way migration methods into the bilayer sensor system. More detailed bilayer sensor migration methods are proposed to demonstrate the feasibility. In the impulse response tests, the propagating angle of the bilayer sensor migration method can reach up to 90°, which is superior to those of the corresponding one-way propagators. To test the performance, several migration methods are used to image the salt model, including the one-way generalized screen propagator, reverse time migration (RTM), and our bilayer sensor migration methods. Bilayer sensor migration methods are capable of imaging steeply dipping structures, unlike one-way propagators; meanwhile, bilayer sensor migration methods can greatly reduce the numbers of artifacts generated by salt multiples in RTM.

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