Incorporating anisotropy and elasticity into least-squares migration is an important step toward recovering accurate amplitudes in seismic imaging. An efficient way to extract reflectivity information from anisotropic elastic wavefields exploits properties of the energy norm. We derive linearized modeling and migration operators based on the energy norm to perform anisotropic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) describing subsurface reflectivity and correctly predicting observed data without costly decomposition of wave modes. Imaging operators based on the energy norm have no polarity reversal at normal incidence and remove backscattering artifacts caused by sharp interfaces in the earth model, thus accelerating convergence and generating images of higher quality when compared with images produced by conventional methods. With synthetic and field data experiments, we find that our elastic LSRTM method generates high-quality images that predict the data for arbitrary anisotropy, without the complexity of wave-mode decomposition and with a high convergence rate.

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