ABSTRACT

The source depth influences the frequency band of seismic data. Due to the source ghost effect, it is advantageous to deploy sources deep to enhance the low-frequency content of seismic data. But, for a given source volume, the bubble period decreases with the source depth, thereby degrading the low-frequency content. At the same time, deep sources reduce the seismic bandwidth. Deploying sources at shallower depths has the opposite effects. A shallow source provides improved high-frequency content at the cost of degraded low-frequency content due to the ghosting effect, whereas the bubble period increases with a lesser source depth, thereby slightly improving the low-frequency content. A solution to the challenge of extending the bandwidth on the low- and high-frequency side is to deploy over/under sources, in which sources are towed at two depths. We have developed a mathematical ghost model for over/under point sources fired in sequential and simultaneous modes, and we have found an inverse model, which on common receiver gathers can jointly perform designature and deghosting of the over/under source measurements. We relate the model for simultaneous mode shooting to recent work on general multidepth level array sources, with previous known solutions. Two numerical examples related to over/under sequential shooting develop the main principles and the viability of the method.

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