Accurate surface-related multiple removal is an important step in conventional seismic processing, and more recently, primaries and surface multiples are separated such that each of them is available for imaging algorithms. Current developments in the field of surface-multiple removal aim at estimating primaries in a large-scale inversion process. Using such a so-called closed-loop process, in each iteration primaries and surface multiples will be updated until they fit the measured data. The advantage of redefining surface-multiple removal as a closed-loop process is that certain preprocessing steps can be included, which can lead to an improved multiple removal. In principle, the surface-related multiple elimination process requires deghosted data as input; thus, the source and receiver ghost must be removed. We have focused on the receiver ghost effect and assume that the source is towed close to the sea surface, such that the source ghost effect is well-represented by a dipole source. The receiver ghost effect is integrated within the closed-loop primary estimation process. Thus, primaries are directly estimated without the receiver ghost effect. After receiver deghosting, the upgoing wavefield is defined at zero depth, which is the surface. We have successfully validated our method on a 2D simulated data and on a 2D subset from 3D broadband field data with a slanted cable.

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