Organic-rich mudrocks, hydrocarbon-bearing conventional formations, and source rocks generally contain pyrite, rutile, graphite, graphitic precursors, and other electrically conductive minerals in the form of veins, laminations, flakes, and grains. Under redox-inactive subsurface conditions, when an external electromagnetic (EM) field is applied to geomaterials containing conductive mineral inclusions, ions in pore-filling brine and charge carriers (electrons and holes) in electrically conductive mineral inclusions migrate, accumulate/deplete, and diffuse around impermeable host-inclusion interfaces. These EM-field-induced phenomena are referred to as perfectly polarized interfacial polarization (PPIP) phenomena, and they alter the effective electrical conductivity σeff and effective relative dielectric permittivity ϵr,eff of geomaterials. In addition, the relaxation process associated with such polarization phenomena and the time required to fully develop and dissipate the EM-field-induced polarization gives rise to frequency dispersion of σeff and ϵr,eff of geomaterials containing conductive mineral inclusions. A laboratory-based EM apparatus, referred to as a whole-core EM induction tool, was used to measure the directional, multifrequency EM response of brine-saturated 4 in diameter (10.16 cm diameter), 2 ft long (0.61 m long), glass-bead packs containing uniformly distributed pyrite and graphite inclusions. We then implemented a semianalytic (SA) EM forward model, referred to as the SA model, to compute the σeff and ϵr,eff of these conductive-mineral-bearing glass-bead packs. The estimated σeff and ϵr,eff of conductive-mineral-bearing packs exhibit directional and frequency dispersive characteristics, which can be explained using the theory of PPIP phenomena. Relative variations in σeff and ϵr,eff due to frequency dispersion were as large as +50% and 80%, respectively, between the values estimated at 20 and 260 kHz. Computed values of ϵr,eff of conductive-mineral-bearing packs were unusually large in the range of 103–106, whereas the corresponding values of σeff exhibited strong dependence on volume content, size, and metallic nature of conductive mineral inclusions, brine salinity, and frequency. Furthermore, packs containing uniformly distributed pyrite and graphite inclusions exhibited conductivity and permittivity anisotropy in the range of one to two.

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