ABSTRACT

Fluid-filled fractures support guided waves known as Krauklis waves. The resonance of Krauklis waves within fractures occurs at specific frequencies; these frequencies, and the associated attenuation of the resonant modes, can be used to constrain the fracture geometry. We use numerical simulations of wave propagation along fluid-filled fractures to quantify fracture resonance. The simulations involve solution of an approximation to the compressible Navier-Stokes equation for the viscous fluid in the fracture coupled to the elastic-wave equation in the surrounding solid. Variable fracture aperture, narrow viscous boundary layers near the fracture walls, and additional attenuation from seismic radiation are accounted for in the simulations. We then determine how tube waves within a wellbore can be used to excite Krauklis waves within fractures that are hydraulically connected to the wellbore. The simulations provide the frequency-dependent hydraulic impedance of the fracture, which can then be used in a frequency-domain tube-wave code to model tube-wave reflection/transmission from fractures from a source in the wellbore or at the wellhead (e.g., water hammer from an abrupt shut-in). Tube waves at the resonance frequencies of the fracture can be selectively amplified by proper tuning of the length of a sealed section of the wellbore containing the fracture. The overall methodology presented here provides a framework for determining hydraulic fracture properties via interpretation of tube-wave data.

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