ABSTRACT

Velocity analysis is an essential step in seismic reflection data processing. The conventional and fastest method to estimate how velocity changes with increasing depth is to calculate semblance coefficients. Traditional semblance has two problems: low time and velocity resolution and an inability to handle amplitude variation-with-offset (AVO) phenomenon. Although a method known as the AB semblance can arrive at peak velocities in the areas with an AVO anomaly, it has a lower velocity resolution than conventional semblance. We have developed a weighted AB semblance method that can handle both problems simultaneously. We have developed two new weighting functions to weight the AB semblance to enhance the resolution of velocity spectra in the time and velocity directions. In this way, we increase the time and velocity resolution while eliminating the AVO problem. The first weighting function is defined based on the ratio between the first and the second singular values of the time window to improve the resolution of velocity spectra in velocity direction. The second weighting function is based on the position of the seismic wavelet in the time window, thus enhancing the resolution of velocity spectra in time direction. We use synthetic and field data examples to show the superior performance of our approach over the traditional one.

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