ABSTRACT

In the correlative least-squares reverse time migration (CLSRTM) scheme, a stacked image is updated using a gradient-based inversion algorithm. However, CLSRTM experiences the incoherent stacking of different shots during each iteration due to the use of an imperfect velocity, which leads to image smearing. To reduce the sensitivity to velocity errors, we have developed prestack correlative least-squares reverse time migration (PCLSRTM), in which a gradient descent algorithm using a newly defined initial image and an efficiently defined analytical step length is developed to separately seek the optimal image for each shot gather before the final stacking. Furthermore, a weighted objective function is also designed for PCLSRTM, so that the data-domain gradient can avoid a strong truncation effect. Numerical experiments on a three-layer model as well as a marine synthetic and a field data set reveal the merits of PCLSRTM. In the presence of velocity errors, PCLSRTM shows better convergence and provides higher quality images as compared with CLSRTM. With the newly defined initial image, PCLSRTM can effectively handle observed data with unbalanced amplitudes. By using a weighted objective function, PCLSRTM can provide an image with enhanced resolution and balanced amplitude while avoiding many imaging artifacts.

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