Induced polarization (IP) effects are becoming more evident in time-domain helicopter airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data thanks to advances in instrumentation, mainly due to improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio and hence better data quality. Although the IP effects are often manifested as negative receiver voltage values, which are easy to detect, in some cases, IP effects can distort recovered transients in other ways so they may be less obvious and require careful data analysis and processing. These effects represent a challenge for modeling and inversion of the AEM data. For proper modeling of electromagnetic transients, the chargeability of the subsurface and other parameters describing the dispersion also need to be taken into consideration. We use the Cole-Cole model to characterize the dispersion and for modeling of the IP effects in field AEM data, collected by different airborne systems over different geologies and exploration targets, including examples from diamond, gold, and base metal exploration. We determined how multiparametric inversion techniques can simultaneously recover all four Cole-Cole parameters, including resistivity ρ, chargeability m0, relaxation time τ, and frequency parameter c. The results obtained are in good agreement with the ancillary information available. Interpretation of the IP effects in AEM data is therefore seen by the authors as providing corrected electrical resistivity distributions, as well as additional information that could assist in mineral exploration.

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