ABSTRACT

Recent advances in logging-while-drilling sigma measurements include three-detector thermal-neutron and gamma-ray decay measurements with different radial sensitivities to assess the presence of invasion. We have developed an inversion-based work flow for the joint interpretation of multidetector neutron, density, and sigma logs to reduce invasion, shoulder-bed, and well-deviation effects in the estimation of porosity, water saturation, and hydrocarbon type, whenever the invasion is shallow. The procedure begins with a correction for matrix and fluid effects on neutron and density-porosity logs to estimate porosity. Multidetector time decays are then used to assess the radial length of the invasion and estimate the virgin-zone sigma while simultaneously reducing shoulder-bed and well-deviation effects. Density and neutron porosity logs are corrected for invasion and shoulder-bed effects using two-detector density and neutron measurements with the output from the time-decay (sigma) inversion. The final step invokes a nuclear solver in which corrected sigma, inverse of migration length, and density in the virgin zone are used to estimate water saturation and fluid type. The fluid type is assessed with a flash calculation and Schlumberger’s Nuclear Parameter calculation code to account for the nuclear properties of different types of hydrocarbon and water as a function of pressure, temperature, and salinity. Results indicate that accounting for invasion effects is necessary when using density and neutron logs for petrophysical interpretation beyond the calculation of total porosity. Synthetic and field examples indicate that the mitigation of invasion effects becomes important in the case of salty mud filtrate invading gas-bearing formations. The advantage of the developed inversion-based interpretation method is its ability to estimate layer-by-layer petrophysical, compositional, and fluid properties that honor multiple nuclear measurements, their tool physics, and their associated borehole geometrical and environmental effects.

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