ABSTRACT

With the incident P-wave, we derive approximate formulas for amplitudes and polarizations of waves reflected from and transmitted through a planar, horizontal boundary between an overlying isotropic medium and an underlying tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) medium assuming that the directions of the phase and group velocities are consistent. Provided that the velocities in the isotropic medium are equal to the velocities along the symmetry axis direction, we derive the relational expression between the propagation angle in the TTI medium and the propagation angle in the hypothetical isotropic medium, under the condition that the horizontal slowness is the same, and then we update the approximate formula of the polarization in the TTI medium. Provided that the slow and fast transverse waves (qS and SH) are generated simultaneously in the anisotropic interface, we linearize for a six-order Zoeppritz equation, derive the azimuthal formula of longitudinal and S-waves, and determine their detailed expressions within the symmetry axis plane. According to the derived azimuthal AVO formula, we establish medium models, compare the derived AVO with the precision, and obtain the following conclusions: (1) The dip angle for the symmetry axis with respect to the vertical may have a sufficiently large impact on AVO, and the vertical longitudinal wave can generate an S-wave. (2) For the derived AVO formula, within the symmetry axis plane, the fitting effect of the approximate and exact formulas is good; however, within the other incident planes, taking the azimuth angle 45° as an example, the approximation is suitable for the large impedance contrast if the anisotropic parameters are set properly. (3) The error between the approximation and precision is mainly caused by the difference between the reflected and transmitted angles, the velocities’ derivation with respect to azimuth, and the division of approximation into isotropic and anisotropic parts.

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