Krauklis waves are of major interest because they can lead to resonance effects in fluid-filled fractures. This resonance is marked by seismic signals with a dominant signature frequency, which may reveal fracture-related rock properties. In our laboratory study, we used homogeneous Plexiglas samples containing a single well-defined (i.e., manufactured) fracture. We recorded the signals obtained from propagating ultrasonic P- and S-waves (source frequency: 0.6, 1, and 2.25 MHz) along a sample without a fracture and samples with a fracture with different inclination angles of 30°, 45°, and 60° with respect to the short axis. The experimental results obtained from an incident S-wave confirmed that the presence of the fracture led to resonance effects at frequencies lower than the dominant source frequency, which slowly decayed over time in the recorded seismic coda after the first arrival. The resonance frequency was independent of the fracture orientation and the source frequency. We have interpreted this narrow-banded coda signal as a resonance in the fracture, and the frequency at which this occurred was an intrinsic property of the fracture size and elastic properties. To verify our laboratory results, we used an analytical solution, which provided a relationship between the fracture width, fracture length, resonance frequency, and temporal quality factor (i.e., exponential decay over time). The temporal quality factor obtained from our laboratory data agreed very well with the analytical solution. Hence, we concluded that the observed signature frequency (approximately 0.1 MHz) in the seismic coda was indeed a resonance effect. Finally, we have developed possible applications on the reservoir scale to infer fracture-related properties based on seismic coda analysis.

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