ABSTRACT

Conventionally, multicomponent geophones used to record the elastic wavefields in the solid seabed are necessary for ocean bottom seismic (OBS) data elastic reverse time migration (RTM). Particle velocity components are usually injected directly as boundary conditions in the elastic-wave equation in the receiver-side wavefield extrapolation step, which causes artifacts in the resulting elastic images. We have deduced a first-order acoustic-elastic coupled equation (AECE) by substituting pressure fields into the elastic velocity-stress equation (EVSE). AECE has three advantages for OBS data over EVSE when performing elastic RTM. First, the new equation unifies wave propagation in acoustic and elastic media. Second, the new equation separates P-waves directly during wavefield propagation. Third, three approaches are identified when using the receiver-side multicomponent particle velocity records and pressure records in elastic RTM processing: (1) particle velocity components are set as boundary conditions in receiver-side vectorial extrapolation with the AECE, which is equal to the elastic RTM using the conventional EVSE; (2) the pressure component may also be used for receiver-side scalar extrapolation with the AECE, and with which we can accomplish PP and PS images using only the pressure records and suppress most of the artifacts in the PP image with vectorial extrapolation; and (3) ocean-bottom 4C data can be simultaneously used for elastic images with receiver-side tensorial extrapolation using the AECE. Thus, the AECE may be used for conventional elastic RTM, but it also offers the flexibility to obtain PP and PS images using only pressure records.

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