ABSTRACT

We have developed a novel algorithm to reduce noise in signals obtained from swept-frequency sources by removing out-of-band external noise sources and distortion caused from unwanted harmonics. The algorithm is designed to condition nonstationary signals for which traditional frequency-domain methods for removing noise have been less effective. The source synchronous filter (SSF) is a time-varying narrow band filter, which is synchronized with the frequency of the source signal at all times. Because the bandwidth of the filter needs to account for the source-to-receiver propagation delay and the sweep rate, SSF works best with slow sweep rates and moveout-adjusted waveforms to compensate for source-receiver delays. The SSF algorithm was applied to data collected during a field test at the University of California Santa Barbara’s Garner Valley downhole array site in Southern California. At the site, a 45 kN shaker was mounted on top of a one-story structure and swept from 0 to 10 Hz and back over 60 s (producing useful seismic waves greater than 1.6 Hz). The seismic data were captured with small accelerometer and geophone arrays and with a distributed acoustic sensing array, which is a fiber-optic-based technique for the monitoring of elastic waves. The result of the application of SSF on the field data is a set of undistorted and uncorrelated traces that can be used in different applications, such as measuring phase velocities of surface waves or applying convolution operations with the encoder source function to obtain traveltimes. The results from the SSF were used with a visual phase alignment tool to facilitate developing dispersion curves and as a prefilter to improve the interpretation of the data.

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