ABSTRACT

Industry practices for near-surface analysis indicate difficulties in coping with the increased number of channels in seismic acquisition systems, and new approaches are needed to fully exploit the resolution embedded in modern seismic data sets. To achieve this goal, we have developed a novel surface-consistent refraction analysis method for low-relief geology to automatically derive near-surface corrections for seismic data processing. The method uses concepts from surface-consistent analysis applied to refracted arrivals. The key aspects of the method consist of the use of common midpoint (CMP)-offset-azimuth binning, evaluation of mean traveltime and standard deviation for each bin, rejection of anomalous first-break (FB) picks, derivation of CMP-based traveltime-offset functions, conversion to velocity-depth functions, evaluation of long-wavelength statics, and calculation of surface-consistent residual statics through waveform crosscorrelation. Residual time lags are evaluated in multiple CMP-offset-azimuth bins by crosscorrelating a pilot trace with all the other traces in the gather in which the correlation window is centered at the refracted arrival. The residuals are then used to build a system of linear equations that is simultaneously inverted for surface-consistent shot and receiver time shift corrections plus a possible subsurface residual term. All the steps are completely automated and require a fraction of the time needed for conventional near-surface analysis. The developed methodology was successfully performed on a complex 3D land data set from Central Saudi Arabia where it was benchmarked against a conventional tomographic work flow. The results indicate that the new surface-consistent refraction statics method enhances seismic imaging especially in portions of the survey dominated by noise.

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