Wavefield energy can be measured by the so-called energy norm. We have extended the concept of “norm” to obtain the energy inner product between two related wavefields. Considering an imaging condition as an inner product between the source and receiver wavefields at each spatial location, we have developed a new imaging condition that represents the total reflection energy. Investigating this imaging condition further, we have found that it accounts for wavefield directionality in space time. Based on the directionality discrimination provided by this imaging condition, we have applied it to attenuate backscattering artifacts in reverse time migration (RTM). This imaging condition can be designed not only to attenuate backscattering artifacts, but also to attenuate any selected reflection angle. By exploiting the flexibility of this imaging condition for attenuating certain angles, we have developed a procedure to preserve the type of events that propagate along the same path, i.e., backscattered, diving, and head waves, leading to a suitable application for full-waveform- inversion (FWI). This application involves filtering the FWI gradient to preserve the tomographic term (waves propagating in the same path) and attenuate the migration term (reflections) of the gradient. We have developed the energy imaging condition applications for RTM and FWI using numerical experiments in simple (horizontal reflector) and complex models (Sigsbee and Marmousi).

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