Perimeter-defense operations, geohazard assessment, and engineering characterization require the detection and localization of subsurface anomalies. Seismic waves incident upon these discontinuities generate a scattered wavefield. We have developed various surface-wave techniques, currently being fielded, that have consistently delivered accurate and precise results across a wide range of survey parameters and geographical locations. We use the multichannel analysis of surface waves approach to study the multimode Rayleigh wave, the backscatter analysis of surface waves (BASW) method to detect anomalies, 3D visualization for efficient seismic interpretation, BASW correlation for attribute analysis, and instantaneous-amplitude integration in the complex BASW method. Discrete linear moveout functions and f-k filter designs are optimized for BASW considering the fundamental and higher mode dispersion trends of the Rayleigh wave. Synthetic and field data were used to demonstrate multimode BASW and mode separation, which accentuated individual scatter events, and ultimately increased confidence in points of interest. Simple correlation algorithms between fundamental and higher-mode BASW data offer attribute analysis that limits the subjective interpretation of BASW images. Domain sorting and Hilbert transforms allow for 3D visualization and rapid interpretation of an anomaly’s wavefield phenomena within an amplitude cube. Furthermore, instantaneous-amplitude analysis can be incorporated into a more robust complex BASW method that forgives velocity-estimation inaccuracies, while requiring less rigorous preprocessing. Our investigations have suggested that a multifaceted surface-wave analysis provides a valuable tool for today’s geophysicists to fulfill anomaly-detection survey requirements.

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