ABSTRACT

We have conducted laboratory experiments over the 1–200 Hz band to examine the effects of viscosity and permeability on modulus dispersion and attenuation in sandstones and also to examine the effects of partial gas or oil saturation on velocities and attenuations. Our results have indicated that bulk modulus values with low-viscosity fluids are close to the values predicted using Gassmann’s first equation, but, with increasing frequency and viscosity, the bulk and shear moduli progressively deviate from the values predicted by Gassmann’s equations. The shear moduli increase up to 1 GPa (or approximately 10%) with high-viscosity fluids. The P- and S-wave attenuations (QP1 and QS1) and modulus dispersion with different fluids are indicative of stress relaxations that to the first order are scaling with frequency times viscosity. By fitting Cole-Cole distributions to the scaled modulus and attenuation data, we have found that there are similar P-wave, shear and bulk relaxations, and attenuation peaks in each of the five sandstones studied. The modulus defects range from 11% to 15% in Berea sandstone to 16% to 26% in the other sandstones, but these would be reduced at higher confining pressures. The relaxations shift to lower frequencies as the viscosity increased, but they do not show the dependence on permeability predicted by mesoscopic wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) theories. Results from other experiments having patchy saturation with liquid CO2 and high-modulus fluids are consistent with mesoscopic WIFF theories. We have concluded that the modulus dispersion and attenuations (QP1 and QS1) in saturated sandstones are caused by a pore-scale, local-flow mechanism operating near grain contacts.

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