Reservoir characterization in the early stage of oilfield exploration generally has enormous uncertainty because few geophysical and well data are typically available. The uncertainty when classifying the facies with seismic data propagates throughout the processes of seismic facies classification, causing errors in the final evaluation of geologic features in an area. To quantitatively evaluate the uncertainty in seismic facies classification, we have analyzed prestack seismic data and well observations in a tight reservoir from northeast China and calculated the uncertainties throughout the process. To achieve this, the facies probabilities conditioned on different properties in each step of seismic facies classification were first derived using a probabilistic multistep inversion. Second, the associated uncertainty and maximum a posterior (MAP) of facies probabilities were evaluated by means of entropy and reconstruction rate, which assessed the degree of similarity between MAP and facies sequence within the range [0, 1]. This enabled us to investigate the influence of the uncertainty propagation on seismic facies classification. The uncertainty of the inversion results for the target reservoir was finally characterized by the calculated entropy and its indicator transform. Additionally, parameter spaces of well-log and upscaled elastic properties were restricted according to the data distribution characteristics in the crossplot. Parameter vectors that were outside the restricted scopes were excluded, reducing the computational time and uncertainty. We determined that quantitative uncertainty evaluation by entropy with a probabilistic multistep approach enabled us to explore much more details of the uncertainty propagation in the processes of seismic reservoir characterization. It should be the method of choice for risk of management and decision making in reservoir assessment.

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